Gulf War Collection
The Trefry Archives is pleased to present a collection of reports, studies and other material related to the Gulf War of 1991, which saw a coalition of international forces headed by the United States enter into combat with Iraqi forces.
Prompted by the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in August 1990, which brought about swift condemnation from then United States President, George H.W. Bush. The immediate aftermath of the invasion was America sending troops to Saudi Arabia as a "defensive mission" to protect Saudi Arabia from a potential further incursion by Iraq from Kuwait. This mission was named "Desert Shield."
The United States built a coalition force over the remaining months of 1990 to enforce a United Nations passed resolution that gave Iraq until January 15, 1991 to withdraw their forces from Kuwait.
When the day for pull out from Kuwait came and went without any action taken by Iraq, an offensive began against Iraq. The offensive phase of the Gulf War is known as Operation Desert Storm. The initial phases included a month long air offensive targeted at Iraqi strategic targets within Baghdad and in the field. Iraq responded by firing missiles against targets in Israel.
The ground war began on February 24, 1991 and lasted approximately 100 hours as coalition forces overwhelmed retreating Iraqi forces. Kuwait was liberated and Iraq laid defeated, though Iraq's leader Saddam Hussein still remained in power.
The Gulf War is often regarded as the first large-scale deployment of modern technological warfare which saw the use of guided missiles, antimissile missiles, cruise missiles, smart munitions, stealth technology, night-vision equipment, global positioning systems and modern data communications systems.
This collection includes material from both the Desert Shield and Desert Storm phases. In it you will find, the full Conduct of the Persian Gulf War, a report presented to Congress by the Department of the Defense that explores all aspects for the War. A number of newsletters created by the Center for Army Lessons Learned before and during the hostilities. An Order of Battle handbook issued during Desert Shield that provides background on Iraqi forces.
The newest release pertains to reports released by the United States General Accounting Office. These reports cover a diverse field of topics surrounding Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm including reports on costs and funding, distribution of equipment, performance of Bradley and Abram tanks, assessment of replacement brigades, evaluation of the air campaign and other topics.
You will find additional studies and reports in the collection.